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GIS: Unraveling the Digital Cartographer's Arsenal


GIS (Geographic Information System)
GIS (Geographic Information System)


Introduction

In today's fast-paced world, geographic information systems (GIS) have become an indispensable tool for professionals in various fields. This revolutionary technology enables us to analyze, interpret, and visualize spatial data, empowering decision-makers across industries. In this blog, we will explore the history of GIS, its evolution, and its vital role in environmental studies.


What is GIS?

Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool that captures, manages, analyzes, and visualizes geospatial data. It combines geographic features with attribute data to provide valuable insights into patterns, relationships, and trends. GIS integrates hardware, software, and data, enabling users to interact with maps and analyze spatial information more effectively.


The Father of GIS

Roger Tomlinson - "Father of GIS"
Roger Tomlinson - "Father of GIS" (GIS Lounge)

The concept of GIS can be traced back to the early 1960s, with the pioneering work of Dr Roger Tomlinson. Often regarded as the "Father of GIS," Tomlinson developed the first computerized GIS while working for the Canadian government. His system called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS), was used to store, manipulate, and analyze land-use data for rural land-use planning. Dr Tomlinson's visionary work laid the foundation for the modern GIS technology we rely on today.



Early Mapping Techniques

Before the advent of GIS, mapping was a laborious and time-consuming process. Early cartographers created maps by hand, using compasses, rulers, and various measuring instruments. The process was prone to errors and limited in terms of data storage and analysis capabilities. Maps were often subjective, reflecting the cartographer's interpretation, and lacked the dynamic nature of GIS-generated maps.


A timeline is presented, showcasing the map of the world as perceived by people throughout different ages:

The first map of the world, known as the Babylonian Map of the World, is highlighted.
The first map of the world, known as the Babylonian Map of the World, is highlighted. (Wiki)

The first map of the world, known as the Babylonian Map of the World, is highlighted. It is considered by many to be the earliest known map, dating back to around the 6th century BC. On the left, you can observe the original map, while on the right, a more contemporary version is displayed, featuring translations of the original map's content in English.


220 B encounter a map of the world that was crafted by Eratosthenes.
220 B encounter a map of the world that was crafted by Eratosthenes. (Wiki)

220 BC, we encounter a map of the world that was crafted by Eratosthenes. He utilized information from Alexander the Great and his successors to create this map and was also the first person to incorporate parallels and meridians into a map.


Map of the world that was created by Muhammad al-Idrisi in 1154 AD.
Map of the world that was created by Muhammad al-Idrisi in 1154 AD. (Wiki)

This is the map of the world that was created by Muhammad al-Idrisi in 1154 AD. It was considered the most accurate map of the world at the time.


Samuel Dunn’s map of the world was created in 1794 BC. (Wiki)
Samuel Dunn’s map of the world was created in 1794 BC. (Wiki)

Samuel Dunn’s map of the world was created in 1794 BC. By this point, we have a pretty solid understanding of what the world looked like. The only thing that was missing at this point was Antarctica, which hadn’t been proven to exist yet.


Map of the world from 1958
Map of the world from 1958. (Wiki)

A map of the world from 1958, the year before many maps were created with satellite imagery. As is seen, there are not many differences between this map and the last one; we had already explored much of the world by this point, and thus our maps were quite close to the actual shape of the world.



How GIS Works: A Step-by-Step Guide

Step 1: Data Acquisition

The first step in the GIS process is data acquisition. Geographic data can be collected from various sources, such as:

Image captured from Satellite (The European Space Agency)
Image captured from Satellite (The European Space Agency)

- Satellite Imagery: Satellite images capture vast areas of the Earth's surface and provide valuable information about land cover, vegetation, and changes over time.






Drone taking aerial images for data collection (Deep Tech Express)
Drone taking aerial images for data collection (Deep Tech Express)

- Aerial Photography: Aerial photographs are captured from aeroplanes and drones, offering high-resolution imagery for detailed mapping and analysis.







Ground level data collection (Reed Land Surveying Inc.)
Ground level data collection (Reed Land Surveying Inc.)

- Surveying: Ground-based surveys help in gathering accurate spatial data, including elevation, property boundaries, and infrastructure details.







Step 2: Data Input and Integration

After acquiring the data, the gathered geographic information is inputted into the GIS software. This procedure includes converting the data into digital formats that are compatible with the GIS system. This process is also known as georeferencing, wherein an image taken from satellites or captured through an aerial photograph of the land from a plane is transferred onto GIS software. This action precisely situates the image based on the provided geographic coordinates. Data integration is crucial in amalgamating diverse datasets to generate comprehensive maps and analyses.

Georeferencing (DMDS Workshop)
Georeferencing (DMDS Workshop)

Step 3: Data Storage

GIS systems use databases to store a vast amount of spatial and attribute data. These databases can be local or cloud-based, ensuring data accessibility and security.

Step 4: Data Manipulation and Analysis

GIS allows users to manipulate and analyze spatial data to uncover patterns, relationships, and trends.

Step 5: Data Visualization

The visualization of data is a critical component of GIS. Through maps, charts, and graphs, GIS helps to communicate complex spatial patterns and insights effectively.

Step 6: Interpretation and Decision-Making

GIS enables users to interpret the analyzed data to gain insights into real-world problems and make informed decisions. For example, urban planners may use GIS to identify suitable locations for new infrastructure based on population density and environmental factors.

Step 7: Output and Communication

The final step involves presenting the results of GIS analysis in various formats, such as printed maps, digital interactive maps, reports, and presentations. The output communicates the findings to stakeholders, policymakers, and the general public.



Fundamental Data Types of GIS

GIS operates on various data types, which are essential for capturing and representing real-world phenomena. These data types include:

a) Vector Data: Represents points, lines, and polygons, with attributes attached to each element. Vector data are used to represent discrete features like roads, buildings, and administrative boundaries.

b) Raster Data: Utilizes a grid structure of cells to represent continuous data, such as satellite imagery or elevation models. Each cell contains a value, and raster data are used for terrain analysis and land cover classification.

Raster Data and Vector Data (DMDS Workshop)
Raster Data and Vector Data (DMDS Workshop)

GIS in Studying the Environment

One of the most crucial applications of GIS is in environmental studies. Its spatial analysis capabilities allow scientists, researchers, and policymakers to better understand and manage various environmental challenges. Some key areas where GIS is used in studying the environment include:

a) Conservation and Biodiversity: GIS helps identify critical habitats, track migration patterns, and assess biodiversity hotspots, aiding conservation efforts and wildlife management.

b) Natural Resource Management: GIS is instrumental in monitoring and managing natural resources like forests, water bodies, and minerals. It facilitates sustainable resource planning and mitigates environmental impacts.

c) Climate Change Analysis: GIS plays a vital role in climate change research, analyzing temperature patterns, sea level rise, and the impact of changing weather conditions on ecosystems.

d) Disaster Management: GIS assists in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It helps assess vulnerability, identify high-risk areas, and coordinate emergency services during crises.

e) Urban Planning and Environmental Impact Assessment: GIS supports urban planners in designing sustainable cities, considering factors like green spaces, transportation networks, and waste management.


Conclusion

Geographic Information Systems have come a long way since their inception, revolutionizing how we understand and interact with spatial data. From the visionary work of Dr Roger Tomlinson to its invaluable role in environmental studies, GIS continues to shape the world we live in today. As technology advances, the potential applications of GIS are boundless, making it an essential tool for a sustainable and informed future.


References:

1. Longley, P. A., Goodchild, M. F., Maguire, D. J., & Rhind, D. W. (2015). Geographic Information Science and Systems. Wiley.

2. Tomlinson, R. F. (2007). Thinking about GIS: Geographic Information System Planning for Managers. ESRI Press.

3. ESRI. (2021). What is GIS? https://www.esri.com/en-us/what-is-gis/

4. NOAA Office for Coastal Management. (2021). Introduction to GIS. https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/training/intro-gis.html

5. World Bank. (2021). GIS Applications in the Environment. https://olc.worldbank.org/content/gis-applications-environment

6. Korte, G.J. and Huisman, O. (2009). **Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology**, Cambridge University Press.

7. Chang, K.T. (2018). **Introduction to Geographic Information Systems**, 9th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education.



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