AGRICULTURE

Aravind reddy .Y

Agriculture is the word derived from Latin where ager or agri refers to soil and culture refers to the cultivation of the soil. It is the art & science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and rearing our livestock.

Agriculture is one of the foremost industries that depends only on natural resources such as water, land and a group of plants and animals. The excessive growing population and changing consumer behaviour or patterns have stimulated the evolution of agriculture from the best traditional to present modern systems. Agriculture has changed dramatically, mainly after WorldWar-II. Food production suddenly rose to a high level due to new technologies and increased chemical use. These changes allowed some of the farmers to produce more yield of food and fibre with reduced labour demands. Historical civilization and the present life as we know now, might not be possible without agriculture.

As time passed, agriculture fields became the most dominant land on the planet as this is feeding the whole global population. Agriculture is important to human survival, and very beneficial for the economy and people, having positive and negative effects on the environment and as well as people. In the world, 2.5 billion people are depending on agriculture and in India it's quite 0.7 billion. Though we have 140 million hectares of agricultural land, more than 80% is marginal and small holdings, and 68% of land have threats of natural disasters like floods, drought etc. And in the past 5 decades, agriculture share in GDP reduced to 14% from 56.5%. In the past 2 decades, 3 lakh people committed suicide and everyday nearly 2000 people are leaving agriculture.

People should follow organic farming, smart farming and subsistence farming like shifting

cultivation and nomadic herding, Sustainable farming methods such as mixed farming, crop rotation to overcome negative impacts. Smart farming is that process of integration of technology into current farming methods to increase production, efficiency and quality of products. Every aspect of farming can benefit from technological advancements- from planting, watering to crop, health and harvesting.

Although agriculture is very useful and helpful in production of raw materials, help in heal the environment by prioritizing biodiversity in the land which results in less soil erosion, healthier soil and better water conservation, there are some of the negative impacts due to the usage of modern methods a huge amount of chemicals for fields which have adverse effects on the environment.

* Deforestation

* Dead zones

* Irrigation problems

* Pollutants

* Soil degradation

* Issues by regions

We should think of it as a counter issue. Proper sustainable management of our lands can prevent these types of problems we are facing now. When we people follow a proper way to balance the agricultural activities and impacts, worldwide farmers may actually bring many positive impacts in agriculture. These impacts may boost ecosystems and enriches biodiversity.

Agriculture helps in setting the environment by adapting more beneficial practices such as use and management of resources such as conservation of energy, resources, improved manure storage etc. Some of the following changes might be seen in the environment if people adapt beneficial practices.

* Agriculture preserves ecosystem

* It creates habitats

* Sets back ecological succession

* Boosts soil fertility

* Retains soil & prevents soil erosion

* Has a balanced role in the water cycle

* It can conserve water

References:

1.https://greentumble.com/positive-effects-of-agriculture-on-the-environment/

2.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_agriculture

3.https://www.jackrusselldesign.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Jack-Russell-Design-My-Smart-Farm-logo-1024x690.jpg

4.https://i.pinimg.com/originals/ef/9c/42/ef9c4284f56e717c8dd191844a

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